Pathwise Instruction Plan

Teacher: Robin Kolegue
Grade: 2/3 combined
Co-Teaching Method: Team and One-Teach-One-Observe

Subject: Reading

1. Learning Objectives
What are your objectives for student learning in this lesson?

1. Students will be able to predict parts of a story, and the end of a story both orally and in writing.
2. Students will use prediction strategies before, during and after a story.
3. Students will self-question to predict stories by using the questions that will be written on chart paper as a guide.
4. Students will draw a picture and write at least two sentences describing how they think the story will end on a worksheet.
5. Students will identify different types of prediction strategies.


Why have you chosen these objectives?

Predicting is a strategy that helps students better develop comprehending reading skills. Our activities are planned to get students actively involved in the learning process and encourage thinking about reading. We have chosen students to watch a video to activate prior knowledge and introduce our predicting strategy. Students will be expected to complete worksheets as a method for us to assess their understanding and ensure active thinking and participation is occurring. We have chosen students to draw a picture and write sentences about their own prediction on the end of the story to fully elaborate on our prediction strategy. Students will learn this before, during, and after strategy specifically to help aid in active reading to lead to better comprehension of texts. Students will self-question during reading to be able to use prediction strategies. We have chosen students to identify different types of prediction strategies to use to various methods for prediction in stories and in other contexts.


What Standards (National or State) relate to this lesson?

LA.2.1.7.1: The student will identify a text's features (e.g., title, subheadings, captions, illustrations), use them to make and confirm predictions, and establish a purpose for reading;

LA.2.1.7.8: The student will use strategies to repair comprehension of grade-appropriate text when self-monitoring indicates confusion, including but not limited to rereading, checking context clues, predicting, summarizing, questioning, and clarifying by checking other sources.

LA.3.1.7.In.a: Preview text features (e.g., title, headings, illustrations) and use prior knowledge to make predictions of content of text.

LA.3.1.7.In.f: Use strategies to repair comprehension, including but not limited to rereading, predicting what happens next, connecting to life experiences, and checking own understanding when reminded.

LA.3.1.7.Su.a: Preview text features (e.g., illustrations, title) and use prior knowledge to make predictions about a story.


2. Content Knowledge
What is the underlying content knowledge that the teacher must help the students understand?
What are the tricky pieces in the content? When you deconstruct the content you are teaching, what are the pieces that are essential for children to understand?

The content knowledge that the students need to understand is the prediction strategies presented and the definition of prediction, evidence, and foreshadowing. The goal of prediction is for students to better comprehend reading text. In our lesson, we are predicting in a variety of contexts to help students understand how and when they can predict when reading. The tricky piece in the content that students may have difficulty understanding is self-questioning when doing predicting strategies in independent reading. Our lesson has students watching us model predicting strategies and noticing us think aloud our questions of what will happen next in the story. The essential pieces that students must understand are the before, during, and after strategies of prediction to help them comprehend the story better. The strategy of using strategies before, during, and after are different in which questions you ask yourself and what you are specifically looking for throughout the text to create a prediction based on evidence provided.



3. Student Grouping
How will you group students for instruction? Why have you chosen this grouping?

1. Whole group instruction
Students will be grouped in whole group for the opening and closing instructional times. They will be grouped this way because all students will need to know this material to complete the activities following in smaller groups.
2. Pair work
Partnered work will also be beneficial for students to interact with one another and discuss predictions that they have made in various parts of the lesson. During the predicting pictures activity is where students will be asked to work with their shoulder buddy.
3. Grade-level group
Students will also be grouped by grade levels to do read different grade leveled books. Ms. Melissa will be reading a third grade book to the third graders, and Ms. Rachel will be reading a second grade book to the second graders. Working with a smaller group will allow for more participation from each member in the smaller groups.


4. Methods
What teaching method(s) will you use for this lesson? Why have you chosen this method or these methods?

We have decided to use one teach-one observe teaching method. This method is used for peer evaluation to obtain feedback on our individual teaching practices. It is beneficial to receive feedback to aid in reflecting on teaching practices that are effective and ineffective. Developing and refining our teaching practices can be helpful with constructive criticism. We are going to do this lesson by splitting up grade groups. The same lesson will be taught by both of us with different leveled materials. The smaller groups are also effective for reducing the student-teacher ratio and create an opportunity to better assess student understanding.

What students need specific accommodations in this lesson? What specific accommodations have you made for these student needs?

The students that need specific accommodations include Steven and Dariana. They are both ESOL students. These students will be partnered with strong readers in the class during the partnered work section of our lesson to comprehend instructions and help understand this prediction strategy better. Another student that needs accommodations is Kanayah. She has an IEP for her diagnosis of ADHD. We can accommodate this student by having her sit at the front so she will not become distracted. Myles is another student we can accommodate this way. He is usually not engaged in activities in the class. Sitting him near the front will allow the teacher to keep a close eye on his participation level and get him involved in learning.

5. Activities
Day 1 – Whole Group


Opening:
(Rachel teaches – Melissa observes)
Ms. Rachel: 10 minutes

“Good Morning Class! Today, we are going to learn about prediction to help you better understand what you are reading.”

“I’m going to pick some one's name from the cup and ask them to tell me what prediction is?” (KNOWLEDGE) (Student answers question and repeat step one more time)

“I’ll pick another person’s name and ask when do you use prediction?” (KNOWLEDGE)
(Student answers question and repeat step one more time)

“You’re Right! Prediction is a guess about what might happen based on what you already know. First, we are going to watch what Mobi and his friend have to say about predicting. Then we will be doing an activity with partners to predict what will happen next in pictures. Finally, we will have a special activity where the third graders will be with Ms. Melissa and the second graders will be with Ms. Rachel. We will be reading books aloud to you all and using our predicting strategies.”

Main Activity or Activities:
(Melissa teaches – Rachel observes)
Ms. Melissa: 10 minutes

“At this time, we are going to show a video.” (Show video and pause at the questions below)

Write definition of prediction for students to see on chart paper.

“How do you make predictions BEFORE you read?” (Pick name from cup, one student answers) (KNOWLEDGE)
Answers to write on chart paper:
1) Looking at the cover
2) Looking at the headings of the pages or table of contents
3) What you know about the author or genre of the book
4) Characters and pictures in the book

“How can you make predictions DURING reading?” (Pick name from cup, one student answers) (KNOWLEDGE)

Answers to write on chart paper:

1) Read a section and stop to make a prediction (introduce stop sign that will be
used in later activity)
2) Ask I wonder what will happen next?
3) Think about the characters, setting, and what else has happened so far
4) Take notes


Write definition of evidence for students to see on chart paper.

“What should you do AFTER you make a prediction?” (Pick name from cup, one student answers) (KNOWLEDGE)

Answers to write on chart paper:

1) Keep predictions in mind
2) Pay attention to details
3) The goal isn’t to predict correctly, but to help you understand what you read


Write definition of foreshadow for students to see on chart paper.

(Following the conclusion of this video discussion, we will ask students to sit silently while we transition to the next activity. The next activity will include looking at pictures on the SMART Board to talk to their shoulder buddy about what will happen next.)



Predicting Pictures Activity:
(Rachel teaches – Melissa observes)
Ms. Rachel: 15 to 20 minutes

“Now, point to your shoulder buddy. If you do not have a shoulder buddy, raise your hand. (Pair up accordingly) We are going to put one picture of a time up on the board, we want you to discuss with your shoulder buddy about what you think the next action will be using the clues given in the picture.”


(Post four pictures on the SMART Board)

“At this time, we will go over all the pictures we made prediction about one by one and I will pull out two students names to share their predictions from the cup. You will each have 1 minute to share. Are you ready?”


(Post first picture on the SMART board and pick one student to share. They will be timed for one minute and then the next student will have their turn and the same procedure will go for each picture).


Predicting a Book Activity: 30-45 minutes
Instructions for Predicting a Book (this will be repeated to 2nd and 3rd graders on day one and day two)
  • Day One – Melissa teaches the 3rd graders and Rachel observes (the rest of the class will be doing their daily silent workbook work)
  • Day Two – Rachel teaches the 2nd graders and Melissa observes (the rest of the class will be doing their daily silent workbook work)

(Either Melissa or Rachel teach)
“You have all been working very hard and are becoming experts in predicting. At this time if you are in (Day One – Third Grade, Day Two – Second Grade) you will work on this activity with me.

If you are in (Day One – Third Grade, Day Two – Second Grade) you are going to stand up quietly when I tell you to and walk to me. If you are not working with me today, you are going to stay in your seats and quietly work on your workbook pages for the day. Does everyone understand? At this time if you are in (Day One – Third Grade, Day Two – Second Grade) stand up quietly and walk to me. If you are not working with me today, please work quietly and tomorrow you will have the fun activity.”

(Students will then get into groups with the teacher and will sit on opposite sides of the classroom and sit criss-cross on the rug for further instructions of the activity).

(Day One – Melissa teaches, Day Two – Rachel teaches: Give directions to group):

“Hello, we will be working together to use prediction strategies that we learned about this morning with Mobi and his friend. I will be reading a book aloud to all of you and we will practice our predicting strategies. Each of you will receive a worksheet, pencil, and clipboard where you will work on to make your own predictions about the story.”

“Please sit quietly and wait for me to give further instructions before looking through the worksheet.”

(Pass out the worksheets, pencils and clipboards to all the students)


“Let’s take a look at our worksheet. Notice that the front page of the worksheet has three columns: What I Think Will Happen? Why? and What Actually Happened?”

In the column titled: What I Think Will Happen? We will write our predictions whenever we make a STOP in the story.

(Introduce with STOP sign)

This is the sign I will use to show that we will be stopping and predicting in our column. Remember that a prediction doesn’t always have to be correct, it is just a guess of what we think will happen. I will be sharing some of my own predictions with you, too. Let’s look at the Why? column. This is where you will write why you made the prediction you did for the first column. Remember evidence? We will write what evidence we saw that led us to our prediction in this column. Now, let’s take a look at the What Actually Happened? column. This is where you will write what really happened in the story after you made your prediction.”

Let’s begin. This is the story we are going to read:

(Read title of the book, and author).

“Look at the: “How do you make predictions BEFORE you read?” strategy. Number one says, Look at the cover; what do we see?” (KNOWLEDGE)

(Pull out the STOP sign)

“At this time let’s take a look at the front covers illustrations. I see...”

(We will model what we see on the front cover.)

“I will write down my predictions on the first column and explain why on the second column. Now, you will do the same.”

(Give the students a minute to work on the cover page and write in their worksheets)

“Students, can we write in the What Actually Happened Column?” (KNOWLEDGE)

(Student’s answer no)

That’s right, no because we haven’t read the story yet. This section is going to be saved for the end of the story.”

“Let’s look at what else we need to look at BEFORE we read the story. Number 2 says, Look at the headings and table of contents. If the book has headings and table of contents we could make predictions, if it doesn’t it is OK and we move on to the next one. Let’s look at number 3, the author or genre of the book. If we knew the author or genre we could make a prediction. For example, if it is a fiction story then it will not be a real story. Let’s look at number 4, characters and pictures in the book. We will flip through the pages and see what we notice about the pictures and we can make a prediction of what the story is going to be about. Make sure you write down your predictions in the first column, and explain why.”

(Give the students a minute to work and write in their predictions on their worksheets).

“Reread DURING strategies chart paper to show students how to predict while reading.”

“Now let’s read, (name of the book). Are you ready?”

(Students answer YES!)


Day One -
Ms. Melissa (3rd grade reading group: The Man Who Walked between the Towers by Mordicai Gerstein):
(Start reading the story and pulls out the STOP sign whenever she STOP’s to ask the students to make a prediction. Read the title and author again and turns to page one. Read page one and STOP and pull out sign and ask students :)

By remembering the picture on the cover, why do you think he is looking at the two enormous towers? Write what you predict and why?” (ANALYSIS)

(Students write answers in first and second column)

“This is strategy number one on predicting DURING reading, written on the chart paper.”

(Continue reading to page four and STOP and pull out sign)

Before reading, look at the picture, what do you think will happen next? Remember to fill out columns one and two and put your pencils down when you are done. This is the second strategy on predicting DURING reading, written on the chart paper.” (EVALUATION)

(Read pages five and six, then STOP and pull out sign)

“Think about what has happened earlier in the book to guess what will happen next. Do you think that Phillipe will change his mind because of the police? Think of the answer and predict what you think Phillipe will do.” (ANALYSIS)

(Have students look at page seven)

“Before we continue reading, looking at the picture, what is happening in this page? What might Phillipe be thinking about? Think of the answer and write it down on your worksheet and explain why.” (ANALYSIS)

(Continue reading until page eleven and STOP and pull out sign)

“By what you already know, what do you predict will happen next in the story? Think of your answer and write it down in your worksheets and write why.” (EVALUATION)

(Continue reading until page fourteen and STOP and pull out sign)

“Before we continue reading, look at the picture and predict what will happen. Think of your answer and write it down in your worksheets and write why.” (EVALUATION)

“YOU ARE ALL DOING A GREAT JOB! KEEP IT UP!”

(Continue reading until page twenty-seven and STOP and pull out sign)

“From what we already know, what do you predict will happen to Phillipe when he gets off from balancing on the wire and reaches the other side? Think of your answer and write it down in your worksheets and write why.” (EVALUATION)

(Continue reading until page twenty-eight and STOP and pull out sign. Tell students to look at page twenty-nine)

“What do you predict the judge will tell Phillipe? What do you think his sentence will be? Think of your answer and write it down in your worksheets and write why.” (EVALUATION)

(Continue reading until page thirty and STOP and pull out sign. Have page thirty-one covered.)

“Fill in the last row in your columns of how you think the story will end and why. We will finish the story after you do the second worksheet, which is creating your own ending to this story. Please turn to the second page now and follow along as I read the directions.”

(Read directions and have student’s complete worksheet. Once students have finished the second worksheet, read the end of the story. Students will now complete the third column of what actually happened in the book. )

“That was a great story! Finish your worksheet in the third column of what actually happened in the story. You may work with someone sitting next to you to see what their predictions were and to remember what actually happened. When completed, please give me your worksheets with your name on them and return to your seats and wait patiently for further instructions.”

Day Two –
Ms. Rachel (2nd grade group - The Wolf’s Chicken Stew by Keiko Kasza):

(Rachel starts reading the story and pulls out the STOP sign whenever she STOP’s to ask the students to make a prediction. She reads the title and author again and turns to page one. I read page one and STOP and pull out sign and ask students :)

By remembering what the cover page picture, what do you think his next meal will be? Write what you predict and why?” (EVALUATION)

(Students write answers in first and second column)

“This is strategy number one on predicting during reading, written on the chart paper.”

(Continue reading to page three and STOP and pull out sign)

Before reading, look at the picture, what do you think will happen next? Remember to fill out columns one and two and put your pencils down when you are done. This is the second strategy on the during chart paper.” (EVALUATION)

(Read pages three, four, and five, then STOP and pull out sign)

“Think about what has happened earlier in the book to guess what will happen next. Why is the wolf cooking? You do not have to write this down on the worksheet. Think of the answer your heads to help predict a possible ending.” (ANALYSIS)

(Continue reading through page nine. STOP and pull out sign. Model think aloud by saying :)

“On the previous pages, I noticed that the wolf was making a lot food for the chicken, I predict that the chicken is going to be really big and yummy to eat in the stew.”

(Read page ten and STOP and pull out sign)

“Fill out the last row in your columns of how you think the story will end and why. We will finish the story after you do the second worksheet, which is creating your own ending to this story. Please turn to the second page now and follow along as I read the directions.” (EVALUATION)

(Read directions and have student’s complete worksheet. Once students have finished the second worksheet, read the end of the story. Students will now complete the third column of what actually happened in the book. )

“That was a great story! Finish your worksheet in the third column of what actually happened in the story. You may work with someone sitting next to you to see what their predictions were and to remember what actually happened. When completed, please give me your worksheets with your name on them and return to your seats and wait patiently for further instructions.”

Closing: 5 minutes
If you did not turn in your worksheets, bring them to me at this time. When I have everyone’s eyes on me, then I will know we are ready to end this lesson and go to lunch.”


As a group, we will review prediction, evidence, and foreshadowing definitions from chart paper.

I am going to pick one students name from the cup to remind us what prediction is.” (Pulls one name, student answers, repeat for other definitions of evidence and foreshadowing) (KNOWLEDGE)

I would also like someone who is raising their hand and sitting quietly to tell me one thing they learned today in class.” (Choose two students to answer) (KNOWLEDGE)

Important questions to ask:
· Why do we predict books? (UNDERSTANDING)
· What can we use in the books to help us predict what it is about? (KNOWLEDGE)
· What evidence do you see that supports your prediction? (APPLICATION)
· How do you make predictions before you read? (KNOWLEDGE)
· How can you make predictions during reading? (KNOWLEDGE)
· What should you do after you make a prediction? (KNOWLEDEGE)


6. Materials
What instructional materials will you use, if any?


· 2nd grade level book: The Wolf’s Chicken Stew by Keiko Kasza
· 3rd grade level book: The Man Who Walked Between the Towers by Mordicai Gerstein
· Chart paper
· Markers
· Worksheets
· Pencils
· SMART Board
· Timer
· Brain Pop Video
· Clip boards

Why have you chosen these materials?

The second grade level book is for Ms. Rachel to read to the second graders in the classroom during instruction and modeling prediction. This specific book was chosen because it was on second grade level, an accelerated reader, and would engage the students. The third grade level book is for Ms. Melissa to read to the third graders in the classroom during instruction and modeling prediction strategies. This book was chosen because it is on this group of students reading level and would keep students attention during read aloud. Chart paper will be used as a visual for students when discussing the predicting strategy and to refer back to for review of definitions. Markers and pencils will be used for writing on materials given out, such as worksheets. The SMART Board will be utilized during whole group instruction to show a video. A timer is needed to ensure that we stay on track and do not lose sense of time since we have an hour to do many activities. The Brain Pop video will be utilized as an instructional material to introduce the prediction strategies. Clip boards will be used in our grade level smaller groups because students will be sitting on the carpet and have to fill out the worksheets provided.

7. Evaluation
How and when do you plan to evaluate student learning on the content of this lesson?

Formative evaluation will be done during instruction through observation and questioning to gain insight into student thinking and clear misconceptions that they may have about predicting. This informal evaluation will be helpful for the teachers to understand if the students are mastering learning objectives. Summative evaluation will be utilized concluding the lesson through worksheets that were completed. We will review worksheets for completion and to distinguish what the students have learned about prediction.

Why have you chosen this approach to evaluation?

We have chosen formative and summative evaluations to ensure that the students are understanding and comprehending the learning goals we have set for them. Formal and informal ways of evaluating are important to use for the teacher to adjust instruction. We evaluate students on the learning objectives listed above to see if comprehension about this prediction strategy was mastered. We are observing and questioning students to get feedback on their understanding. Our worksheet is being utilized to have a concrete sample of what each student understands about prediction.